In 2016, a federal report found that nearly 21 million Americans over the age of 12 struggle with substance addictions. In recent months, stories of celebrityoverdoses and the opioid epidemic have inundated the news. And in the United States, an estimated 8.7 million children under the age of 18 live with at least one parent with a substance use disorder.
Needless to say, addiction is something that touches almost everyone in some way, whether it’s directly through a family member or indirectly through news consumption. While parents want to address drugs and addiction with their kids, they often don’t know when or how to broach the subject. But it’s immensely important that they do.
To offer some guidance, HuffPost spoke to prevention and mental health experts, like John Sovec, a therapist based in Pasadena, California.
“Kids are much more savvy today, and open, honest conversations that take place now can set up the groundwork for keeping substances out of their future,” Sovec said.
With that in mind, here are nine things to know about talking to your children about addiction.
“The important thing is that this is a conversation that needs to start long before any child is exposed to substances in their peer groups,” Lindsey Prevost, the director of prevention services at the Council on Alcohol & Drug Abuse for Greater New Orleans, told HuffPost. “You can start talking to preschoolers and younger kids and highlighting some of these things.”
By starting the conversation early, parents can instill the notion that they will always be a resource and that their children can come to them with any questions or concerns. “Always bring it back to, ‘We love you. We care about you. And if we don’t know the answer, that’s OK. We’ll figure it out.’”
Keep It Age Appropriate
Of course, starting early doesn’t mean going into all of the ins and outs of addiction. Prevost emphasized keeping the discussion age appropriate.
“With toddlers or preschool kids, you can start the conversation simply by saying, ‘Hey, while I’m giving you this vitamin, this is really important to help you grow, but it’s also really important that you never take this by yourself,’” she explained. It’s helpful to note that taking too many vitamins ― or taking vitamins or medicine meant for someone else ― could make you feel sick.
“It can start with medicine safety, telling them that just because this is our family medicine cabinet doesn’t mean all of the medicine is for you, and we are responsible for taking care of you so please come to us with questions about what’s in there.”
Let The Conversation Evolve
Going into the tween years, Sovec advised parents not to be in denial about how much their kids are being exposed to the notion of addiction and drugs.
“It’s important for families to understand it is present on campus as young as elementary school and definitely in middle school,” he said. “And even if it’s not present in your kid’s face, it is on social media and in the news they’re seeing, so they are being exposed to the story of addiction at a much younger age than parents imagine they are.”
With this in mind, it’s crucial to foster open conversations about what your kids are seeing, hearing and reading. “Maybe someone got pulled out of their class one day because they were caught with drugs in their backpack. That’s an opportunity to ask what they know about it and what questions they may have about it,” Sovec added. “This sets them up to have a place to talk about addiction and substances as it becomes more present around them.”
Draw Connections To Things They Understand
Using a metaphor can help explain the concept of addiction or drug abuse to young kids. Sovec offered the example of a plate of cookies on a table.
“For some people, they can take one cookie and eat it and be OK, but some people might take the whole plate of cookies because they can’t stop themselves. And afterward when they’ve eaten that whole plate of cookies, they don’t feel well. That’s something more familiar to a little one’s experience.”
Prevost said when her agency explains the brain science behind addiction to kids, they relate it to everyday experiences. “We ask, ‘Have you ever been running around outside on a hot day and felt so thirsty? And then you took a sip of really cold amazing refreshing water and it felt so good? Or have you been so tired, you just couldn’t hold your head up anymore, and then you finally put your head on the pillow and you felt so good?’”
Our brains are designed to reinforce these things that are good for our survival, so they reward us when we do these things by making us feel great, Prevost explained. When someone develops an addiction, however, those things that used to make them feel good no longer compare to how they feel when they’re using a drug.
Honesty is key when parents are having conversations with their children about addiction.
“When we try to hide things from kids, they know that there’s something going on,” said Sovec. “And if we don’t validate that information or explain what addiction looks like in a person, family or community, we’re doing them a disservice in their own personal development.”
Prevost noted that many parents feel hesitant to talk to their kids about drugs if they have used drugs themselves at some point. But it’s still possible to have a constructive conversation without hiding the truth.